Hydrocarbon and Derivatives
Hydrocarbon and derivatives is a general name for hydrocarbons. The Chinese translation of hydrocarbons is often expressed in a combination of elements and simplification. Hydrocarbons take a fire in carbon and hydrogen goes to the head to form a word. The three groups of hydrocarbons are distinguished by the degree of molecular saturation. Alkanes (alkanes) are saturated hydrocarbons and they are unable to accept hydrogen again. Alkenes is a hydrocarbon that is less hydrogen. Alkene molecules can also have more than one unsaturated double bond, so this type of compound includes diene, three ene,... Wait hydrocarbon and derivatives that are more hydrogen deficient than alkenes are called alkynes (alkynes), which contain three bonds.
Common hydrocarbon and derivatives have methane (methane), propane and butane (lighter oil), isooctane, paraffin. High grade gasoline often boasts of isooctane value, which is inversely proportional to the shock caused by combustion of gasoline in internal combustion engines. The name of polyethylene should be paid attention to. Ethylene polymerization is a high grade Zi Wan (the end may have other groups). Many plant essential oils are alkenes. The compound, such as the ramie (limonene, figure two), is the main component of the oil extruded from the peel of orange and grapefruit. The oil produced by the pine tree contains two isomeric pinene (pinene) and a small amount of single compound. The animal liver has the function of making Sha Xi (squalene). It is the intermediate of bile steroids and some sex hormones. Bonds (regular distribution) of the alkenes. Beta carotene (beta -carotene) has a very long conjugated polyene system in which the single bond and the double bond interreplace on the carbon chain, so it can absorb the visible light waves of the part. Acetylene (Fig. three) is the most familiar and simplest three bond hydrocarbon, which can be obtained by the hydrolysis of calcium carbide. Before the electric lamps were popularized, the roadside stalls were illuminated at night for the use of acetylene.